Topic Media - Archived

How does NASA study the Atmosphere?

Description

The A-Train

Caption

Most of us only pay attention to clouds when trying to plan a picnic or an outside activity. But to scientists, they mean much more. Clouds affect temperatures and air quality across the globe and play a crucial role in the planet's climate. Clouds are the link between energy and water in the Earth's climate system; they dominate the energy budget of the Earth and carry the precipitation that redistributes fresh water on the Earth's surface. To aid our stewardship of Earth, we need to know how to better manage the air quality. We can't say with any certainty what increasing carbon dioxide will do to the Earth's climate unless we can improve the way that clouds and aerosols are represented in climate models. Even small changes in the amount of cloudiness can profoundly change the way the Earth's climate responds to increased greenhouse gases or aerosols in the atmosphere. NASA will look to the suite of instruments on two new satellites: CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and CloudSat to help Earth's leaders make better policy decisions in response to global climate changes. The satellites are scheduled for launch no earlier than mid-June from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California aboard the same Delta II rocket. Scientists need to know the composition of cloud condensation nuclei, the amount of water and ice in clouds, the height of clouds in the sky and the extent to which clouds at different altitudes overlap each other. These factors affect the distribution of heating within the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth, influencing the circulation of the atmosphere and of the ocean. This is because the balance between incoming sunlight and outgoing energy determines the planet's temperature and ultimately, its climate. CALIPSO and CloudSat will join a carefully choreographed dance of satellites. The duo will fly in orbital formation with NASA's Earth-observing satellites Aqua and Aura, and with PARASOL, a satellite developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collectively, the satellites are known as the "A-train" after the famous jazz tune. Measurements from CALIPSO and CloudSat will be used to test and improve the accuracy of cloud and aerosol measurements from the other A-train satellites, according to David Winker, NASA's principal investigator for CALIPSO and Graeme Stephens, NASA's Principal Investigator for CloudSat.

Credit

NASA

Topic Filename Media Filename

hot/0a-train.top

hot/a-train-lg.jpg

Source URL

http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/109196main_calipso_a-train-lg.jpg

More Info URL

http://www.nasa.gov/missions/earth/f_calipso-cloudsat.html